We can look to see if you block the language system through giving people a secondary task like repeating a word over and over, does that affect the primary thing that you're interested in? We can look at individual differences between people and how much they seem to use inner speech and how that relates to their cognitive profile.
You mentioned that Vygotsky's mqtch is that all these things we used to do as kids, talking to ourselves out loud, moves inside the mind. They'll use private speech to give themselves a ticking off after they've done something dumb.
Fernyhough: Yeah, exactly, and it even could heqd to certain aspects of mental health. Beck: He was just noticing those ones more perhaps? People can think their thoughts are a bit negative but they turn out to be quite joyful, or vice versa.
Beck: The obvious challenge to studying this is that the only thoughts you can really know with any certainty are your own. And I think we all do that, it's just sort of accentuated in sports.
Where people will psych themselves up, but also tell themselves off. And then there's a sort of social and cultural pressure as well.
They use to regulate their chzt just like we use spoken language. The idea is not that you need language for thinking but that when language comes along, it sure is useful.
They're able to do all sorts of things, initiate actions, work stuff out, remember stuff. Somehow those traumatic events seem to be breaking back in to consciousness in a transformed way.
So what are the ways researchers have devised to get around that? But we use inner speech to reflect on the past as well. They'll use private speech to give themselves a ticking off after they've done something dumb. A certain category of thinking that we call verbal thinking, and that's essentially inner speech, the stuff that we do in words. And that fits with the idea that inner speech has a lot of different functions. Fernyhough: The basic story is quite a simple one.
Fernyhough: Yeah, exactly, and it even could apply to certain aspects of mental health. Beck: You mention that part of Vygotsky's theory is that as we're learning social speech, we're also learning internal speech.
Fernyhough: Although this is solitary speech, it's speech for the self, it seems to be stimulated by the presence of other people. A lightly edited and condensed transcript of our conversation is below.
So there are some good reasons for doing it silently. It's funny, I always find I talk to myself out loud most at the grocery store.
As adults, in maatch situations, we find it really useful to say it out loud rather than just in our he. The idea of having a conversation with another being. So there are some good reasons for doing it silently. If it's between the self and the self, how does that splitting of the self work out internally? There's also a lot of problems with that idea.
I know one common example is in sports, people talk to themselves to improve their performance. And it has these roles in motivation, very commonly as you see in sports. Because we internalize social dialogues, we bring in that dialogic structure and it's right there at the heart of our thinking. Is inner speech a subcategory of thought or are they one and the same?
People are studying consciousness as a scientific topic of chay. And that is a really fascinating philosophical question, because it suggests we can be mistaken about our own experience. And we now think there are a few main kinds of inner speech.
We can look to see if you block the language system through giving people a secondary task like repeating a word over and over, does that affect the primary thing that you're interested in? How might the way we talk to ourselves, or magch way we interrogate our own beliefs in our minds affect our moral judgments?
In the book I tried to use this as a way of rethinking the idea of spiritual meditation and of prayer. There's a commentary, which is apparently helping her to think through what she's doing, and plan what she's going to do.
Russ Hurlburt, [who created DES], has an example of somebody with OCD in one of his papers, where he talks about this character who complained mahch having constant intrusive obsessive thoughts, but when he did DES, he found there wasn't nearly so much of that. It has functions in imagination, in creating alternative realities.
Even just saying the thing out loud can be incredibly helpful.